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Int J Fire Sci Eng > Volume 30(2); 2016 > Article
Fire Science and Engineering 2016;30(2):114-122.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.114    Published online April 30, 2016.
고온 및 단락전류에 따른 리튬배터리의 폭발 및 화재 위험성에 관한 연구
심상보, 이춘하, 김시국
1한국소방안전협회
2호서대학교 소방방재학과
3호서대학교 소방방재학과
Study on the Explosion and Fire Risks of Lithium Batteries Due to High Temperature and Short Circuit Current
Sim Sang-Bo, Lee Chun-Ha, Kim Si-Kuk
1Korea Fire Safety Association
2Dept. of Fire and Disaster Protection Engineering, Hoseo Univ.
3Dept. of Fire and Disaster Protection Engineering, Hoseo Univ.
요약
본 논문은 리튬배터리의 고온 및 단락전류에 따른 폭발 및 화재 위험성을 분석하기 위한 연구이다. 이에 대표적인 리튬배터리 종류인 리튬폴리머배터리 및 리튬이온배터리를 실험시료로 선정하였다. 고온에 따른 폭발위험성 측정결과 리튬폴리머배터리의 경우 평균 $170^{circ}C$, 리튬이온배터리의 경우 평균 $187^{circ}C$에서 폭발이 일어났다. 단락전류에 따른 온도상승측정결과 보호회로가 정상작동 할 경우 과전류를 제한하여 온도상승이 거의 없었지만, 보호회로가 고장 났을 경우 리튬폴리머배터리의 경우 평균 $115.7^{circ}C$ 및 리튬이온배터리 경우 평균 $80.5^{circ}C$까지 상승하여 화재 및 화상 위험성이 높게 나타나는 것으로 측정되었다.
Abstract
This study is to analyze the explosion and fire risks due to high temperature and short circuit current of Lithium batteries. This study selected the typical types of Li-polymer batteries and Li-ion batteries as the test samples. The result of explosion risk assessment due to the high temperature showed that, while a Li-polymer battery had $170^{circ}C$ explosion on average, a Li-ion battery had $187^{circ}C$ explosion. The measurement result of temperature increase due to short circuit current revealed that, in case that protection circuit module (PCM) was normally working, there was little of temperature increase due to over-current limitation. However, in case that PCM was out of order, the temperature of a Li-polymer battery increased up to an average of $115.7^{circ}C$ and the temperature of a Li-ion battery increased up to an average of $80.5^{circ}C$, which showed the higher risks of fire and burn.
Key Words: Lithium batteries, Explosion and fire risks, High temperature, Short circuit current, PCM


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